June 2019 - Lower Respiratory Diseases in the Horse
Respiratory conditions in the horse are never anything to sneeze about, especially when it comes to equine influenza, herpesvirus, asthma or even "heaves." Pose your questions for this month's expert, Dr. Lynn Martin, related to respiratory diseases in the horse.
Click here to read this month's questions and answers.
- How soon after a foal is born should they start receiving grain in their young diet? (View Answer)
Foals will mimic their dam within the first few days of life and look like they are eating hay and grain with the mare. However, they really don’t start to consume feed until they are about 10 to 14 days of age and it is at this age that I recommend the foal have access to creep feed. Only offer small amounts of creep feed and remove any uneaten feed every day or two. Also work with your nutritionist or veterinarian to determine the best creep feed for the foal and how much the foal should receive daily once they have started to eat the creep feed. Judy Marteniuk, DVM, Michigan State University
- Is there a particular month during breeding season that is best to ensure getting the healthiest foal possible? (View Answer)
The health of the foal is not dependent on the time of the year, but on the health of the mare and her pregnancy. Mares cycle best in April, May and June. Additionally, close observation of the mare at the time of birth is very important for both the mare’s and the foal’s health. Birth should occur within 15 to 20 minutes after the mare is in active labor. The foal should be up and nursing the mare within a couple of hours as the colostrum (first milk) provides not only nutrition, but antibodies for protection to infection. Anything that may limit the foal’s vigor to get up and nurse will affect its health. Some factors would be birthing problems (dystocia), not nursing in an appropriate time. Extremely cold weather (hypothermia) or extremely hot weather (hyperthermia) may keep the foal from getting up and nursing in a timely manner. Judy Marteniuk, DVM, Michigan State University
- I have a 10 month old filly that chews boards when she is in the arena, but not in her own paddock. Why? (View Answer)
Horses chew wood for a number of reasons. The most common reasons are lack of fiber in the diet, boredom, anxiety, wood type and possibly a nutritional deficiency. Horses are more likely to chew on soft woods like pine than on hard woods like oak. If the same type of wood is present in the paddock fence and the arena, I would be concerned the filly is either bored or anxious/stressed in the arena. Also, you may want to have your veterinarian review your horse’s ration for any problems. Judy Marteniuk, DVM, Michigan State University
- Which bedding, straw or shavings, is best for a pregnant mare and her foal? (View Answer)
At the time of foaling, the mare should be bedded on straw. However, prior to foaling and after the foal is dry, up, nursing and acting normal, any type of bedding can be used. Judy Marteniuk, DVM, Michigan State University
- How old should a colt be before he receives his first set of shoes so as not to damage the hooves? (View Answer)
A horse should only wear shoes if needed. Many horses never need to wear shoes. Shoes are only required if the hoof wall is being worn faster than it can be replaced, added traction is needed, or if there are some therapeutic reasons (e.g. founder) to have a horse shod. Many horses wear shoes as the owner likes the way the feet look. Additionally, show horses are often shod to improve the appearance of the feet or to alter their way of going for certain equine disciplines. If you elect to shoe a horse, do not shoe a horse that is growing unless needed for therapeutic reasons. Shoes, even when applied correctly, limit hoof expansion. The restriction of a shoe is particularly concerning in young growing animals, therefore; only shoe a young horse that is being ridden or driven and only if absolutely necessary. Judy Marteniuk, DVM, Michigan State University
- What would you recommend feeding a nine-month-old colt? He is currently being creep fed. (View Answer)
It is impossible to determine what your colt needs nutritionally, without additional information. In general, the diet should meet the NRC requirements for a 9-month-old of his breed and size. Additionally, good quality forage (hay/pasture) should be the primary part of the ration with concentrates/grains only fed as needed to balance the ration.
To get more specific feeding recommendations for your foal, speak with your veterinarian or equine nutritionist. Judy Marteniuk, DVM, Michigan State University